If you accurately translate the name of this genus of orchids, it means "living on trees" and indicates that the plants of the genus always lead an epiphytic lifestyle.
These orchids form one of the most diverse and, perhaps, one of the most numerous genera of the orchid family (the genus has about 1,500 species). Plants of the genus Dendrobium vary greatly not only in the shape and color of the flowers, but also in their growth and structural features. Here you can find the most diverse, amazingly exotic species.
Flower shoots can grow, hanging down, in the form of clusters or directly vertically. All flowers of the genus are characterized by a spur-shaped protrusion of the lip, the so-called “chin”. The size of the plants varies greatly: some orchids are equal to only a few millimeters, while others can reach a size of 2 meters or even more.
Many types of dendrobium, such as Dendrobium Pierre or Farmer's Dendrobium before flowering they drop their foliage. These species belong to orchids of a moderate-cold temperature zone. During the leafless stage, they look like dried, abandoned plants, but when the dormant phase ends, these orchids are again covered with lush greenery. Other species of the genus, such as Dendrobium noble or Dendrobium bukesotsotsvesny they can also dump their foliage if the resting phase is clearly expressed, but usually this does not happen. The remaining species of this genus are evergreen and belong to the moderately warm temperature zone. There are so significant differences in the cultivation of orchids of the Dendrobium genus that this genus can be divided into about 15 groups. Among the cultivated orchids, a large number of very peculiar, bizarre species were added, which are often quite easy to care for. Orchid hybrids are becoming increasingly important for growing on the windowsill. Dendrobium Phalaenopsis and Dendrobium noble.
Homeland: Sri Lanka, India, South China, South Japan, Polynesian Islands, Eastern Australia and Northeast Tasmania.
Dendrobium © Juni from Kyoto, Japan
Temperature: Dendrobium is thermophilic, in winter the optimum temperature is about 22-25 ° C, night minimum 15 ° C. In winter, the resting period when kept in cool conditions is about 12 ° C, depending on the type of plant.
Lighting: Dendrobiums are photophilous; eastern and western windows are suitable for them; on the southern window shading is required in the hottest hours of the day.
Watering: Abundant during growth in spring and summer, the soil should be moist all the time. In winter, watering is very limited, i.e. almost dry content.
Fertilizer: During the period of growth, budding and flowering, they are fed with a special fertilizer for orchids.
Air humidity: Dendrobium requires an air humidity of about 60% and higher, so it is better to place it on a pallet with water or wet pebbles.
Transfer: A transplant is carried out only when the roots of the orchid begin to crawl out of the pot and the plant slows down growth. Approximately dendrobium is transplanted after 3-4 years, the pot should not be too large, otherwise the plant will grow poorly. Soil is a special purchase mix for orchids. You can cook it yourself - for this, horse peat and large pieces of pine bark are taken.
Reproduction: Dividing and air layering.
Pests, diseases: Scabies and pemphigi, some species also have spider mites - with too dry air. With accumulating dampness, damage by fungi is possible.
Dendrobium (Dendrobium amabile) © KENPEI
Cultivation and care
Dendrobiums are cultivated depending on their ecology in rooms with moderate (18–22 ° C) or cool temperature conditions in baskets, on blocks of cork oak bark or tree fern roots. The substrate for their cultivation is pine bark, rotted leaves, charcoal and sand (1: 1: 1: 0.5).
Deciduous Dendrobiums originating from regions with a monsoon climate have a pronounced dormant period. In spring and summer they are kept in a warm (22-24) wet mode, preferably in a greenhouse. After the ripening of the stems, watering is reduced, and in the winter it is completely stopped, limited to only sprinkling and maintaining the temperature not lower than 15-17 degrees. Dendrobium Phalaenopsis, since it does not have a dormant period and comes from rainforests, it needs to be uniformly warm and humid all year round. In general, plants are photophilous, however, in the hot midday hours they need a slight dimming. They grow better in a small bowl.
Propagated by dividing the bush, stem cuttings and apical shoots - children forming aerial roots. Divide the bushes should be no more than after 3-4 years, while apical shoots can be removed annually. Transplantation and reproduction are carried out in April - June, depending on the species, when young shoots begin to grow.
Dendrobiums are photophilous plants, prefer fresh air, but do not tolerate drafts. Bloom profusely, on average for 12-19 days. In the section, the flowers of some species remain fresh for 4–6 days (up to 3 weeks in the phalaenopsis dendrobium).
During intensive growth 2 times a month, they are fed with a 0.01% solution of complete mineral fertilizer.
After growth is over, deciduous species enter a dormant period and need a cool and dry content. Species without a distinct dormant period, such as, for example, D. moschatum, require minimal watering when the growth processes are damped. Tropical species (D. phalaenopsis, D. chrisotoxum) at any time of the year require watering, and the minimum temperature in winter should be at least 15 ° C. During dormancy, a certain humidity should be maintained in the greenhouse all the time, plants should be sprayed periodically to avoid excessive depletion and wrinkling of tuberidia.
All species of orchids of the genus Dendrobium need a small capacity. Many species are also suitable for breeding on blocks. Tall plants need to be sprayed more often to prevent pest damage. Some species of Dendrobium, for example, phalaenopsis, are prone to the formation of "children", with which these species are easy to propagate.
Dendrobium noble (Dendrobium nobile), as well as other species and hybrids dropping foliage, should be placed in a cool (10-14 ° С) and dry place in the dark (November to January). Once the buds are clearly visible, return the plant to its usual place.
Dendrobium King (Dendrobium kingianum), Dendrobium is magnificent (Dendrobium speciosum) and their relatives in summer can be placed, like Cymbidium orchids, outdoors, in a bright, but not sunny place. If you do not have such an opportunity, pay special attention to the fact that in winter the plant is in a cool and dry place.
Dendrobium Phalaenopsis (Dendrobium phalaenopsis), as well as related species and hybrids, it is enough to place in a warm place and make sure that at night the temperature drops, as is required by plants of these species.
Tip: When buying a plant of the Dendrobium genus, you definitely need to find out what temperature zone your orchid belongs to, since in view of the wide variety of Dendrobium species it is impossible to give general advice on caring for the plant.
Dendrobium (Dendrobium sulcatum) © Elena Gaillard
Dendrobium aloe leaf (Dendrobium aloifolium)
Epiphyte, common in Southeast Asia and Indonesia. Thin shoots are densely covered with unusual triangular leaves, more like succulent leaves. Short peduncles develop from the buds of the upper internodes of the shoot, which are devoid of green leaves. The flowers are numerous (at least 10-12) and very small, only 0.2-0.4 cm in diameter. All parts of the flowers are greenish-white. It blooms in summer and autumn, from July to October.
Leafless Dendrobium (Dendrobium aphyllum)
Epiphytic or lithophytic species, widespread in Southeast Asia. Pseudobulbs are long, semi-penetrating, multi-leaved. Short peduncles develop in the nodes that dropped the leaves of last year's shoots and bear one or three fawn-pink flowers with a cream fringed lip. Each flower in diameter reaches 3-5 cm. The main peak of flowering occurs in February-May, however, flowering specimens in culture can be found almost all year round.
Noble Dendrobium (Dendrobium nobile)
Epiphytic orchid, widely distributed in Southeast Asia. Pseudo bulbs up to 60–90 cm long, multi-leaved. Short peduncles develop one to four flowers from 6 to 10 cm in diameter, which have a dense texture and can even stand for some time in cut. Flowers of various shades - from dark lilac and saturated pink to pure white. The lip has a large dark purple spot. In culture, it blooms more often from January to May.
Dendrobium nobile © Guérin Nicolas
Two-humped dendrobium (Dendrobium bigibbum)
Epiphytic or lithophytic plant from Northern Australia. Pseudobulbs carry fleshy leaves at the end. Peduncles appear from the buds of the upper internodes, and both young shoots of last year's growth and old leafless pseudobulbs can bloom at the same time. Each peduncle carries 8-20 bright flowers with a diameter of 3-5 cm, purple-raspberry or purple-pink, sometimes white. It blooms from August to December.
Dendrobium sole (Dendrobium unicum)
The homeland of this miniature epiphytic and lithophytic dendrobium is Northern Thailand, Laos and Vietnam. Deciduous plant, and in a leafless state is most of the year. Lateral one-three-flowered inflorescences usually appear on internodes that have dropped leaves. The flowers are turned upside down, bright orange, with a diameter of 3.5-5.0 cm. The lip is pale yellow. It blooms from January to June.
The miniature epiphyte hails from northern Thailand, Vietnam and southwest China. Pseudobulbs consist of 2-7 internodes, each of which carries one sheet. Inflorescences are single-flowered, very short, appear in the upper part of the shoots. Flower up to 5 cm in diameter, white or creamy, translucent. The lip is three lobed, with a red-orange or orange-yellow central part. It blooms from mid-summer to mid-autumn.
Dendrobium lindley (Dendrobium lindleyi)
Epiphytic species, widespread in Southeast Asia (India, Burma, Thailand, Laos, Vietnam and southwest China). The pseudobulbs are univalent; the shells are densely covered with translucent scaly leaves. The inflorescences are lateral, drooping, bear 10-14 pale yellow or golden yellow flowers with a diameter of 2.5-5.0 cm with a wide open lip, equipped with a large orange-yellow spot in the center. It blooms from March to July.
Dendrobium lindley (Dendrobium lindleyi) © KENPEI
Dendrobium loddiges (Dendrobium loddigesii)
Homeland - Laos, Vietnam, southwestern China, Hong Kong. This is a small epiphytic orchid (10-18 cm) with many-leafed thin pseudobulbs and large bright flowers with a diameter of 5 cm. Inflorescences are one-two-flowered, usually appear in spring on shoots that have dropped leaves. The flowers have pinkish-purple sepals, purple petals, and a pinkish-purple lip with a large yellow-orange spot in the center. Flowering lasts from February to June.
Lion dendrobium (Dendrobium leonis)
Homeland - Cambodia, Laos, Malaya, Thailand, Vietnam, Sumatra and Kalimantan. A small (10-25 cm) orchid with thin shoots and completely covering them with fleshy flattened triangular leaves from 3.8 to 5 cm long. Inflorescences develop at the nodes of the apical internodes that dropped leaves. Each peduncle carries one or two creamy yellow or fawn green nondescript flowers with a diameter of 1.5-2.0 cm. It mainly blooms in summer and autumn.
Odorless Dendrobium (Dendrobium anosmum)
Epiphyte, widespread in Southeast Asia. In nature, its shoots can reach enormous sizes - up to 3 m, and in culture - 30-90 cm. Short peduncles appear on shoots that have dropped leaves and develop 1-2 large bright flowers. Flowers with a diameter of 7-10 cm, painted in violet tones of various shades. Flowering plants of this species in the greenhouse can be found all year round, while the peak of flowering is observed from January to April
Dendrobium odorless (Dendrobium anosmum) © Elena Gaillard
Dendrobium primrose (Dendrobium primulinum)
The species is widespread in Southeast Asia. Epiphytic plant with long leafy shoots. One-two-flowered inflorescences develop from buds that shed leaves of internodes. The flowers are 4–8 cm in diameter, light purple with a large yellowish-white fringed lip, which inside the pharynx is painted with parallel dark red or purple stripes. It blooms in nature in spring, in culture from January to August.
Dendrobium (Dendrobium ruppianum) © KENPEI
In order for a plant to please you with bright and abundant flowering, it is necessary to go through a period of hypothermia in the fall, when night temperatures drop to 8-10 ° C and even lower at night, and 10-15 ° C during the day.
It is practically impossible to recreate such conditions in the house, therefore, in order to achieve the effect of hypothermia, it is better to take the pot in June to the balcony or to the garden, where it should remain until about mid-October.
From the beginning of September, stop watering almost completely. Day and night temperature drops during this period are optimal for the proper development of flower stems.
If it is not possible to take the pot out into the open air, then at home Dendrobium is placed very close to the glass and stimulates flowering by drought, but the number of flowers will be much less than in the case of temperature differences.
As a result of numerous crossbreeding of Dendrobium Nobile, a variety called Stardust was bred, which does not require a dormant period and does not need to lower the temperature for flowering.
In the natural habitat of this epiphyte, relative humidity is maintained for most of the year at 75%, and in the winter to 50%.
Experience, however, shows that, as a rule, Dendrobium is quite resistant to dry air in the apartment, especially since its activity is minimal in winter. Humidity should be increased to 50-60% during the growing season in early spring.
This can be achieved with a humidifier or by placing the plant on a tray with a thick layer of wet expanded clay or other porous material. When watering, water impregnates expanded clay and evaporates, providing the necessary humidity.
During the period of active growth, from spring to autumn, they are watered after the soil dries up, approximately once every 3-5 days, depending on the level of humidity in the room and air circulation.
While during the dormant period from autumn to early February, it is necessary to almost completely stop watering and be limited to a little moisture once every two weeks. The cool and dry period is important for the further development of the orchid and its flowering, and it is stopped only at the stage of bud opening or at the beginning of the growth of new shoots in early spring.
It is better to water with rain or filtered water at room temperature abundantly and evenly. Make sure that excess moisture flows through the drain holes. Water should not stagnate at the bottom of the pot, as this will lead to rotting of the roots.
A good indicator may be the state of the pseudobulb - if they are wrinkled, then the plant experiences a lack of moisture. The recommended watering method for orchid representatives can be found here.
All species need top dressing. Plants of the first group without a pronounced dormant period require phosphorus-potassium fertilizer, not only in summer but also in winter. Frequency - once a month.
Varieties of the second group are fed with nitrogen fertilizers 1-2 times a month from the beginning of active ground growth in the spring and through September by half the dose of the one indicated on the package.
Short peduncles appear on several nodes along new mature pseudobulbs. Flowering, as a rule, lasts from two to three months from the end of February to May.
At the end of flowering, flower stalks can be cut. Like most orchids with a sympodial type of growth, Dendrobiums do not develop a new peduncle from the same pseudobulb.
Sometimes old bulbs can repeat flowering in the lower nodes, but not so often - they are inactive and usually drop leaves next year. However, it is not recommended to remove them, since old pseudobulbs are a source of nutrients and can be used for vegetative propagation of orchids.
Transplantation is carried out every 2-3 years and even less often, if the quality of the substrate has deteriorated or the pseudobulbs of the orchid are not placed in the pot, hanging over its edges.
The procedure is carried out in the spring after flowering, when active growth of roots is noticed. The pot should be very slightly larger than the previous one or the same. As a substrate, use special soil for orchids or prepare a mixture of pieces of dry pine bark, perlite, charcoal, a small amount of peat and coconut fiber.
Before planting, the roots are washed with water, cut sick or damaged with a disinfected tool. Slices are sprinkled with powdered charcoal and allowed to dry for a couple of hours. After transplanting, Dendrobium Orchid is not watered for 10 days. You can read about the rules for placing an orchid in a pot here.
Dendrobium can be propagated by cuttings taken from old stems, which are placed in a mixture of peat and moss. The optimum temperature for rooting is 22-25 ° C with constant humidity of air and soil.
Or by dividing overgrown specimens, using old, but viable pseudobulbs with growth points for reproduction. Cut, remove leaves from them and simply put sphagnum and peat moss on the mixture. The container or the greenhouse should be in ambient light, with good air circulation and a temperature of + 20 ° C.
Spray the soil 2 times a day. When there are signs of growth, transplant young plants into a pot. Flowering will come in 3-5 years.
Diseases and Pests
The main pests for all species are thrips, whiteflies and scale insects, and in case of violation of the watering regime on the leaves spots of fungal or bacterial species may appear.
The occurrence of thrips contributes to high temperature and low humidity. To get rid of them, the plant should be sprayed with insecticides. You can also get rid of small white midges - whiteflies.
Orchid Dendrobium in nature and at home
Genus Dendrobium unites more than 1200 species of epiphytic orchids, the photo below shows one of the species of the Dendrobium orchid, growing in tropical rainforests in the territory:
There are many varieties of dendrobium orchids.
The climate of this area is clearly characterized pronounced seasonality arid winters and summer monsoons, bringing heavy rainfall. It is for the period of the absence of rain in nature that the rest period of dendrobiums falls.
The same pronounced seasonality inherent in these orchids and at room content, when the dormancy phase occurs in the autumn-winter season.
The place where the orchid will grow is largely determines its development and flowering:
- The windowsill on the east, southwest, northeast, or north side is most suitable. In the latter case, backlight will be needed in winter,
- In the summer, the southern window is uncomfortable for orchid growth, since the temperature can rise much higher than the optimum.
The orchid should not be rearranged or rotated in different directions, as this badly affects its flowering.
In the active period of growth
With the advent of spring and summer, the active growth of young shoots begins and their formation to the size of last year's pseudobulbs, in which beneficial substances and moisture accumulate. Optimal temperature rangethat the plant needs during this period:
- Spring - air temperature + 20-24 ℃,
- Summer - air temperature up to + 27 ℃.
In order for the orchid not to die, it is necessary to observe the temperature regime.
To stimulate flowering, it is desirable create a temperature difference day and night within 4-5 ℃.
The rest period of the dendrobium falls at the end of autumn - the beginning of winter. It is not as pronounced as in the natural environment, but at this time the plant definitely needs a restfor which he needs to provide:
- Temperature mode + 15-18 ℃,
- The maximum possible humidity
- Rare watering.
The appearance of young shoots at the base of the bulb means end of rest period, at this time, you can resume watering and top dressing.
During the period of active growth of dendrobium heavy watering required. At the same time, they are monitored so as not to cause excessive moisture in the roots:
- Between watering, the soil should dry completely,
- It is better to use rainwater for irrigation, you can defend tap water and mix it with distillate in a ratio of 1: 1.
Properly selected watering mode will provide good growth orchids.
In the phase of leaf growth and flowering orchids, the plant must be watered 2 times a week, in the fall - once a week, in winter with caution - once a month.
Watering can be done different methods:
- Under the tap. When showering with water, moisture falls only on the surface of the soil, the plant remains dry. The pressure of the stream should not erode the surface of the soil, the time is about 3 minutes,
- By immersion in water. A flowerpot with a plant is lowered for 10-15 minutes into a vessel filled with water, then it is allowed to completely drain the water and put the pot in place.
When watering, make sure that water does not fall on young bulbs, remove moisture from leaf sinuses with a napkin.
The effect of excess soil moisture
Dendrobium does not tolerate excessive watering and waterlogging of the soil, which leads to rotting of the roots. The first sign of waterlogging will be that the leaves turn yellow with their subsequent death.
How to care for a potted orchid? Since the birthplace of dendrobium is rainforest, He loves high humidity - up to 55-60%. With low humidity, the plant regularly carry out water procedures:
- Daily sprayed with water,
- Expanded clay is laid out and regularly moistened in a pallet,
- A small amount of sphagnum moss is placed in the basket.
It is necessary avoid moisture stagnation in a pot and pan.
During the vegetative growth, top dressing orchids spend weekly from the beginning of April to September.
Fertilizers for dendrobium.
The fertilizer developed especially for orchids is most suitable for this; it is bred in water for watering the plant.
If conventional minerals are used fertilizers for indoor plants, then they should be diluted 3 times in comparison with the recipe.
With the beginning of the growth of the roots and leaves of the orchid fertilizer high nitrogen.
As soon as the growth of the orchid has stopped and the bulbs have increased in size, the plant is fed with increased concentrations of potassium and phosphorus, which are necessary for the formation of flower buds.
Dendrobium flowering usually continues 8-12 weeks, at high ambient temperatures it can be reduced.
In the rest period
Since the beginning of November at the Dendrobium there comes a period of restwhich lasts about 2 months:
- From the last decade of October, watering is stopped,
- The flowerpot is put in the lightest and driest place,
- Optimum temperature cultivation within 15-16 ° C during the day and 8-10 ° C at night,
- If it is not possible to create a daily temperature fluctuation, then the plant is exposed at a constant temperature of about 10-12 ° C. More high temperature or humidity can cause lack of flowering.
Lack of light in winter may provoke hibernation of dendrobiumduring which the plant stops growing. With the appearance of the first signs of growth, the usual regime of watering and top dressing is resumed.
After shopping at the store
After the purchase, the orchid is provided with a 2-week quarantine, so that in case of illness do not infect other indoor plants:
- Choose a slightly shaded place
- Sinus sinuses are examined for pests and signs of the web,
- During quarantine, the plant is not watered or fed with fertilizers.
After quarantine orchid put on a permanent place.
How to stimulate flowering?
Why is the orchid not blooming? The lack of flowering in the dendrobium, as a rule, is associated with uncomfortable growing conditions or care, which requires revision and adjustment. How to make Dendrobium bloom? Orchid is not blooming, what should I do? To stimulate flowering apply the following techniques:
In order for the Dendrobium to bloom, you need to properly care for it.
- Create a daily temperature fluctuation of day and night in the range of 5-6 ℃,
- Watering before flowering is reduced, the orchid is placed in the brightest place or illuminated with a phytolamp,
- Feeding should contain an increased amount of phosphorus,
- 2-3 times arrange a warm shower with a water temperature of 30-35°.
Compliance with these simple rules will stimulate lush flowering dendrobium.
Signs of improper care
In case of improper care of the plant, the following symptoms can be observed, requiring adjustment conditions of care and maintenance:
- Shriveled stems - a sign of insufficient watering of the orchid,
- Lack of flowering - low light
- Yellowing and leaf loss - scanty watering or rotting of the roots, change of temperature or overfeeding of the plant,
- Root rot - watering during the dormant period, waterlogging of the substrate, decomposed soil, non-sterile soil substrate during planting,
- Bud dropping - high temperature cultivation, the presence of pests.
In all cases should adjust care behind the orchid.
Measures to combat ailments
Pest control consists:
- In increasing air humidity,
- And washing the plants with soapy water twice a month.
Leaves and Stem manually remove insectsif the defeat is strong - treat with Actellic.
Such pests must be removed manually from the leaves of the Dendrobium orchid.
Types of "dendrobium"
|Difficulty of leaving|
- 1. Description
- 2. Growing
- 3. Diseases and pests
- 4. Reproduction
- 5. First steps after purchase
- 6. Secrets of success
- 7. Possible difficulties
Dendrobium is one of the most numerous genera in the Orchid family. It unites over 1000 species of plants of amazing beauty. Differences in these epiphytic flowers are much greater than similarities. Often, even experienced flower growers and botanists find it difficult to determine the species.
Plant height varies from millimeters to several meters. The stems in some are thick cylindrical, in others spindle-shaped, in the third reed-shaped, and in the fourth they are entirely swollen pseudobulbs. There are dendrobiums evergreen and deciduous.
Flowers differ in shape and size, not to mention the colors. In nature, there are no only blue and black Dendrobiums, the rest of the palette is presented in full. Despite this diversity, it is the flowers that serve as the unification function. All species have a common feature - lateral sepals fused at the base.
Dendrobiums are characterized by prolonged flowering at home. Some of them have pleasant aromas. Plants confidently lead in the popularity rating of indoor flowers. Caring for them is not easy. However, it requires, first of all, not so much skill as accuracy and attention. Compliance with the requirements allows you to achieve impressive success not only experienced but also beginner growers.
First steps after purchase
A thorough inspection of the leaves should precede the purchase of Dendrobium. Specks, stripes, thickenings - evidence of the presence of pests. Transport the plant to a new place of residence should be in reliable packaging. Even short-term hypothermia is fraught with the dumping of flowers and buds. Transplantation into “fresh” soil and amputation of dried roots must be carried out immediately. At least 3-4 days should pass before the first watering. Since the symptoms of fungal and viral infections are hidden at first, a 2-week quarantine is required to prevent mass infection. The plant does not have to be immediately placed on the windowsill. For the period of adaptation, Dendrobium can be settled a meter from the window.
Secrets of Success
Dendrobium photophilous. Certain species can tolerate direct sunlight without damage to their health. However, most members of the genus prefer to grow in light shading.
The temperature regime of the Orchid depends on belonging to a particular species. Plants that love coolness in the warm season feel good at temperatures up to 18 ° C during the day, 15 ° C at night. Daytime winter temperature should not exceed + 12 ° C, nighttime - 8 ° C. For thermophilic species, the optimum summer temperatures are + 25 ° C during the day, + 20 ° C at night. In the winter months - 20 and 18 ° C, respectively. Regular airing is beneficial for all members of the genus.
Dendrobiums need high humidity. Pots are recommended to be placed in pallets. Fine spraying of air near the plant is also acceptable, but so that not a single drop falls on either the leaves or the flowers.
Abundant watering during active growth (warm shower or immersion of the pot in water) during the onset of the rest period is reduced to rare water procedures as the earthen coma completely dries out. In this case, it is recommended to use soft settled water at room temperature.
Top dressing with special fertilizers is carried out only during the growing season and is completely stopped at the end of flowering.
Reasons: 1) insufficient lighting, 2) a rest period is not provided.
A crack on the leaf along the midrib
Reasons: 1) insufficient watering, 2) rapid cooling after watering, 3) inappropriate fertilizers, 4) mechanical damage.
Reasons: 1) sunburn or heat burn.
Dark spots on the leaves
Reasons: 1) heat burn, 2) fungal or viral infection.
Yellowing of the bases of leaf blades, falling of leaves
Reasons: 1) insufficient lighting, 2) irrigation with hard water, 3) top dressing with too concentrated fertilizer.
Leaf tips drying out
Reasons: 1) overheating, 2) low humidity.
Rotting of roots and stems
Reasons: 1) excessive watering.
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