Grapes Family - VITACEAE
Forest grapes Vitis sylvestris S. C. Gmel.
A rare European-Mediterranean species.
Liana, a climbing stalk, often spreads on the ground, very long. The leaves are rounded, almost bud-shaped, shallowly three-five-lobed, glabrous or with scattered hairs. The tendrils of grapes of stem origin, branching, are able to make circular movements, thanks to this they wrap around the branches of neighboring plants (trees). Forest grapes bloom in May, and the fruits ripen in September. The flowers are collected in an inflorescence - a loose side panicle, they are dioecious, dioecious. The perianth consists of a strongly reduced 5-tooth-chatted calyx and of five fused green or yellow-green petals. Before flowering, the corolla is discarded in the form of a cap. Five stamens, a pistil formed by two carpels, it is transformed into a fruit - juicy berry 6-8 mm across, clusters up to 15 cm long. Berries of forest grapes have a sharply sour taste. Forest grapes are more resistant to winter adversity and lack of moisture, it is not affected by phylloxera and better resists fungal diseases. These qualities of forest grapes have long attracted the attention of researchers using it as source material for selection, especially since it is easily crossed with cultivars.
Forest grapes are common in the European part, in the Caucasus, in Central Asia. It prefers to settle on fresh, fairly rich soils, mainly in floodplain forests, from the lower to middle mountain zones. The stocks of the species are large. They are of purely scientific interest. The area is reduced due to the economic development of the territory.
It is necessary to allocate reserves and assign the most valuable thickets to the management of existing reserves. It is included in the list of rare and endangered species of the USSR flora.
Forest grapes - perennial woody vine up to 20 m long with shoots covered with gray-brown thin-furrowed bark, exfoliating in adulthood. Young shoots are slightly ribbed, later - angular and smooth. The leaves are green, 3-5-tylopasta or almost whole, round-ovate, glabrous or covered with hairs, up to 10 cm long, with a wide notch at the base. In autumn, the foliage acquires a golden color, often with orange blotches or spots. The flowers are dioecious, small, yellowish-green, with a pronounced aroma, collected in paniculate inflorescences.
The fruits are spherical, black, with a bluish bloom, up to 0.8 cm in diameter, collected in clusters, the weight of which does not exceed 100 g. The fruits are sour, sometimes sweet, suitable for food. Forest grapes bloom in May, the fruits ripen in September. The subspecies is drought-resistant, cold-resistant, rarely affected by phylloxera and fungal diseases. It is used in gardening, but mainly in the southern regions. It easily interbreeds with many varieties of cultivated grapes; as a result of selection, quite a lot of hybrids and varieties were obtained.
The fruits of forest grapes are used in cooking for the preparation of seasonings, marinades, jams, jellies, raisins, vinegar and wines. Berries are also used in folk medicine. They contain a large amount of organic acids (citric, malic and tartaric), dextrose, pectin and other beneficial substances. Seeds are rich in fatty oil, in some countries they make coffee substitute and edible oil. Eating fruits is beneficial for constipation and other bowel problems. Incorrect combination can cause stomach problems.
Growing conditions and planting
The place under the forest grapes should be well-lit and protected from cold piercing winds. You can give lianas a place near the fence, the wall of the house or outbuildings located on the south side. Soils are preferred drained, loose, fertile, water- and breathable, moderately moist. Unsuitable heavy, clay, compacted, waterlogged, dry and swampy soils.
Before planting seedlings of forest grapes, it is necessary, as follows, to prepare the soil. Poor soils are fertilized with organic and minerals. Landing can be carried out both in early spring and in autumn. Landing pits are prepared in advance: during spring planting - from autumn, during autumn - a couple of weeks before the proposed planting. The dimensions of the landing pit are 50 * 50 cm, 10-15 cm in addition - for drainage (broken brick, pebbles, crushed stone or coarse sand).
On top of the drainage, a mound of soil mixture composed of the upper fertile layer, humus and sand is formed. The soil should be loose and fertilized, this will provide comfort for the development of the root system in the first years of life. It is advisable to add 200 g of superphosphate, 200 g of potassium salt and 40 g of ammonium nitrate to the soil mixture prepared for laying the pit. The amount of fertilizer varies depending on the fertility of the soil on the site.
Planting grape seedlings in a newly prepared hole is extremely undesirable, because when the earth begins to settle, it will drag the young plant inland, which can lead to rather unpleasant consequences. Having planted a seedling, the soil in the pit is compacted, a hole for irrigation is formed, and it is plentifully moistened. Mulch overlay is welcome. Do not forget about the support, grapes cannot develop normally without it, it will be susceptible to the invasion of various pests and the defeat of dangerous diseases.
Diseases and the fight against them
One of the serious diseases that can damage forest grapes is mildew or downy mildew. It can damage all aboveground parts of plants. With untimely intervention, the foliage becomes shapeless with oily spots, which are later covered with a web-like bloom. Subsequently, the spots acquire a brown color, then dry and fall off.
Similar signs of the disease appear on buds, ovaries, flowers, and berries. Most often, the disease is a consequence of improper care and increased humidity of the soil and air. In the control of pests, spraying with copper-containing preparations, for example, Aksikhom, Kurzat, Khom, is effective. Processing is carried out before flowering twice (with an interval of 2 weeks). Also, the use of a 0.3% copper chloride solution is not prohibited. It is important to remember that a disease is easier to prevent than to get rid of it. After timely spraying, damage can be avoided.
Of the dangerous diseases of grapes, oidium or powdery mildew should be noted. The leaves of plants affected by oidium are covered with white bloom with black dots, and shoots with spots. The occurrence of the disease at the time of fruit ripening leads to cracking and the appearance of a specific smell. As a rule, the disease manifests itself in dry and hot weather or after a sharp change in drought to humidity, in many regions this occurs in July or early August. As a preventive measure, it is recommended to treat grapes with a 1% solution of colloidal sulfur at intervals of 10-12 days. Stop spraying 2-3 weeks before the berries fully ripen. In the fight against oidium, a 10% urea solution is effective.