The massive method of vaccinating people and pets has dramatically reduced their incidence. This anti-epidemic measure is called immunoprophylaxis. A living organism has the ability to resist various types of infection - this was noted in the midst of epidemics, when not all animals became ill. This body immunity to viruses, bacteria and protozoa is called immunity.
Distinguish between hereditary immunity (otherwise innate) and acquired immunity. An example of hereditary (innate) immunity is the immunity of the dog plague to humans, and the dog to infectious diseases that affect humans: measles, chickenpox, scarlet fever, etc. Acquired immunity occurs after a disease or vaccination and is not inherited.
Depending on the method of immunization they speak of active acquired and passive acquired immunity. With passively acquired immunity, antibodies pass through the placenta of mothers-bitches to puppies and they will be protected from some infectious diseases for a short time after birth. For example, for the first time 2 months of their life, puppies cannot get a plague. But now we will only consider the use of vaccines in dogs that induce actively acquired immunity.
To prevent parvovirus enteritis, viral hepatitis, plague, rabies, etc., various types of vaccines are used in our country and abroad. They are divided into monovalent (from one type of pathogen, for example, plague) and polyvalent (against two or more pathogens, respectively). Nowadays, polyvalent vaccines are often used in puppies. But I do not recommend vaccinating your pets with foreign multivalent vaccines up to 6 months of age. It is better to use mono- and trivalent vaccines of domestic production. This opinion is shared by many Russian and foreign dog breeders. In their book "Dogs and Bulldogs" A. Inshakov and E. Tsigelnitsky write: "Our foreign colleagues more often use polyvalent vaccines for dogs living in kennels and private homes, where the likelihood of contact with the infection is much lower than in urban settings, where dogs walk together and take turns walking in a confined space. The multivalent vaccine immunization schedule includes a mandatory three-time revaccination at 2-3 week intervals. The most commonly used vaccines are Nobivak and Boostervac. Dr. Barton, Head of the Veterinary Clinic in Cornwall, who shared with us his thoughts on vaccinating dogs living in big cities, recommends not vaccinating small puppies with 5-6-7 valence vaccines, as much as possible, since using 1-2-3 valence vaccines helps to provide more reliable immunization against the most common and dangerous infections. "
My recommendations for vaccinating dogs. You brought a 1.5 month old baby to the house. During his short period of life, he ate his mother’s milk and did not leave the apartment. In an infectious respect, he is usually healthy. In the embryonic period of fetal development through the placenta and after birth with colostrum of the mother, the puppy received the necessary antibodies. He developed maternal immunity, which protects the puppy in the first weeks of his life.
As if you would not like, do not rush to walk with the baby. If you really want the puppy to breathe fresh air and the weather is nice outside, you can carry it in your arms, but in no case put it on the ground. After all, the baby can easily catch a cold and then he can not be vaccinated. The incubation (latent) period of the disease - the stage of development of the disease characteristic of all infectious diseases - can last from several days to weeks. At this time, the baby is not yet noticeable that he is sick. But if he is given a vaccine at this moment, then the hidden disease will manifest itself and will proceed rapidly and hard. Then do not make claims to the doctor and the quality of the vaccine - you yourself will be to blame for the disease of the puppy.
Vaccination calendar. It is advisable to start the vaccination company from 1.5 months of age according to the following scheme:
- At 1.5 months - vaccination against enteritis, hepatitis and adenovirus (puppies can get sick with adenovirus even at 4 weeks of age).
- In 2 months - vaccination against plague, hepatitis, enteritis and adenovirus.
- In 2.5 months - revaccination, i.e. the repetition of the previous vaccination.
After changing teeth in 5-6 months, the same vaccination schedule is repeated twice with an interval of 10-14 days against plague, hepatitis, enteritis and adenovirus, or use a multivalent vaccine such as "Nobivak" according to the scheme. Vaccinate at 1 year as well as at 6 months. At an older age, vaccination is carried out once a year, and the selection of vaccines is at the discretion of the doctor, depending on the epidemiological situation in the dog's place of residence.
Rabies vaccinations are given once a year. This vaccination is given to puppies when they are 3 months old.
Despite vaccination, dogs sometimes become ill. This is due to the following reasons:
1. If the vaccine has lost its properties as a result of improper storage conditions or if the rules for its transportation are not observed.
2. Vaccination was carried out during the incubation period of the disease, when there are no obvious clinical signs of the disease, but the dog was already sick.
3. The immune deficiency of the organism of the vaccinated individual does not make it possible to develop a full-fledged immunity. The reasons for this are various metabolic disorders, a lack of vitamin E, the presence of a large number of parasites (worms, fleas, etc.), tumors, etc.
4. Maternal antibodies that pass the puppy through milk can stop the immune process. That is, passive immunity neutralizes active immunity.
The following precautions must be observed before and after vaccinations:
1. That the vaccine does not cause complications, the dog must be healthy.
2. The animal should not have external and internal parasites.
3. Vaccination of the animal should be done on an empty stomach.
4. Do not wash your dog before vaccination and do not give her physical activity.
5. In the next 10 days after the last vaccination, do not drive the dog to places where animals are crowded.
Irresponsible vaccination of a puppy or adult dog can have negative consequences in the future.
Puppies are especially in need of preventive actions. They need to first administer vaccines to prevent the onset of the disease. You don’t have to worry about the well-being of the pet - the disease after manipulations passes almost without complications.
In the presence of immunity, the body forms antibodies that are in direct contact with the virus. The drug contains a small portion of the virus necessary to detect the strain. For example, a rabies vaccine prevents the onset of this disease in a puppy, an adult animal.
Immunization is an annual procedure that must be done in a timely manner, guided by the schedule of compulsory vaccination of dogs.
A newly born puppy receives a set of necessary antibodies with breast milk. After three months, immunity is reduced. At this time, the baby's body should be supported. If you doubt when the vaccine was given, it is better to take the dog to the veterinary clinic. Here he will be tested for antibodies.
It is necessary to immunize adults, healthy individuals. You can not be vaccinated with recently giving birth, nursing bitches. Interval - a month before and after the event.
WSAVA Vaccination Guidelines
1. All dogs and cats should be vaccinated. This protects not only the animal, but also creates the so-called flocking immunity, which reduces the risk of outbreaks of disease.
2. Do not vaccinate unnecessarily.
3. Basic vaccines should be given to all dogs and cats, regardless of the circumstances. They protect animals from serious diseases common around the world.
Basic vaccines for dogs against viruses:
Basic vaccines for cats against viruses:
Vaccination guidelines have been developed based on recent research. First, vaccination is not an absolutely safe procedure - sometimes serious side effects develop after it. Secondly, new data on the duration of immunity.
For pediatric vaccination, the level of colostral (obtained with breast milk) antibodies in puppies and kittens is of great importance. If vaccination is carried out too early, these antibodies reduce the effectiveness of the vaccines, preventing the formation of an immune response. If the antibody level has already decreased, but vaccination has not yet been carried out, the puppy or kitten is vulnerable to infections - this is called the susceptibility window. Since the level of maternal antibodies is different in each animal and we do not know it without special analyzes, it is recommended that puppies and kittens have a series of vaccinations starting from 6-8 weeks and ending no earlier than 16 weeks of age.
The ability of puppies and kittens to obtain maternal antibodies with colostrum is preserved only during the day after birth. Then the intestines become impervious to antibodies. Accordingly, the duration of breastfeeding of puppies and kittens does not affect the level of maternal antibodies, the amount of colostrum in the first day is important. If the newborn does not receive colostrum within 24 hours after birth, then he will not have maternal antibodies.
Based on the WSAVA recommendations, the following conclusions can be made:
- The start of vaccination of puppies and kittens depends on their lifestyle. From 6 weeks of age, vaccinated animals that have not received colostrum (do not have colostral antibodies), or whose fate is not known, are vaccinated. From 8 weeks of age, animals growing with their mother and receiving mother's milk from birth are vaccinated
- the last vaccination in a series of children should be given no earlier than 16 weeks of age (when maternal antibodies cease to block the effect of vaccines). Prior to this, vaccination should be carried out every 3-4 weeks. Thus, approximate the primary (childhood) vaccination scheme may look like this: 8-12-16 weeks or 7-10-12-16 weeks
- dogs older than 16 weeks of age, not vaccinated before (or in the absence of reliable data on vaccination), a single vaccination with basic vaccines is sufficient. For cats older than 16 weeks of age who have not been vaccinated before or with an unknown vaccination history, a single vaccination against panleukopenia is sufficient, but a double vaccination against calicivirus and rhinotracheitis is necessary
- at the age of 26-52 weeks (six months to a year) revaccination is recommended. It will protect those animals that for some reason did not form an immune response to previous vaccinations. This large interval can be used for optimal planning of further annual vaccinations depending on the season.
- after revaccination at the age of 26-52 weeks, basic vaccines should be administered no more than once every 3 years (except for calicivirus and cat rhinotracheitis) throughout the life of the animal
These recommendations apply only to basic vaccines. There are additional ones, but it is wrong to consider them optional. These vaccines are recommended for those animals whose living conditions predispose to infection with certain diseases - leptospirosis in dogs, leukemia (leukemia) in cats, rabies. In addition, this issue can be regulated at the legislative level (for example, rabies vaccination).
Schedules of vaccination with additional vaccines differ from the basic ones, and the task of the veterinarian is to choose an individual scheme for each animal, taking into account many factors. Below I will list common additional vaccines.
Rabies vaccination. According to the legislation of the Russian Federation, it is mandatory for all dogs and cats, regardless of lifestyle (including exclusively domestic), therefore, it should be considered as a base. It is carried out starting from 12 weeks of age. The vaccine is administered once (sometimes need to be repeated), and then annual revaccination is carried out. There is a nuance - in accordance with the legislation of the Russian Federation, vaccination carried out no earlier than 3 months of age is legally significant.
Dog Leptospirosis Vaccination. Spend no earlier than 8 weeks of age twice with an interval of 3-4 weeks, then annual revaccination. For dogs at risk (keeping in a private house where contact with rodents is possible, hunting), it is better to use vaccines with a large number of serogroups.
Dog parainfluenza vaccination. Included in most complex vaccines for dogs. But vaccination against parainfluenza should be carried out annually, and the remaining components of the vaccine - once every 3 years. In addition, it is preferable to use an intranasal vaccine, which is administered once from the 8-week (earlier) age and then the annual revaccination. When using an injection vaccine (as part of a complex), puppies are vaccinated according to the same scheme as the basic vaccines.
Vaccination for dog bordetellosis. It is part of the intranasal vaccine against bordetellosis and parainfluenza. Conducted once from 8 weeks of age (if necessary, from 3 weeks), then annual revaccination.
Vaccination against dog coronavirus.Not recommended, as there is no evidence of its effectiveness and necessity.
Vaccination for rhinotracheitis and feline calicivirosis. These are basic vaccines, but the frequency of revaccinations depends on the lifestyle of each particular cat - annually with a high risk of infection, every 3 years - with a low. The peculiarity of this vaccination is that it does not prevent the disease, but reduces the severity of clinical symptoms.
Vaccination against chlamydia in cats. Start from 9 weeks twice with an interval of 2-4 weeks, then annually. The vaccine is additional, relevant for cats with a high risk of infection (multi-cat communities).
Feline Leukemia Vaccination. Recommended for cats that have contact with the street (including indirect - for example, keeping with a cat walking on the street). Begin from 8-9 weeks of age with a mandatory repeat in 2-4 weeks. Revaccination is carried out at the age of 1 year, then no more than once every 2-3 years. An important addition: if the cat is already a carrier of leukemia, vaccination will not harm, but it will be pointless, so preliminary tests are necessary.
Immunodeficiency Vaccination. The vaccine is administered three times with an interval of 2-3 weeks, starting from 8 weeks. Revaccination at the age of 1 year, then annually. It should be borne in mind that this vaccine does not protect against all subtypes of the virus. Carrying vaccines does not make sense, so preliminary tests are also necessary.
The recommendations in the WSAVA Vaccination Guide so far contradict the guidelines for some vaccines. But the veterinarian can use the vaccine according to the recommendations of the Guide (and, therefore, modern scientific knowledge), having received the informed and documented consent of the owner to use the drug outside the instructions.
Treatment from worms 2 weeks before vaccination. Almost all owners know that before vaccination, treatment from worms is needed. Previously, it was believed that infected animals had reduced immunity and, accordingly, there would be a poor response to vaccination.According to studies, even if the animal has worms and there are so many that they affect the immune system, vaccination will still be effective (except for clinically ill kittens and puppies due to helminth infestation). And animal worms need to be treated regularly, regardless of vaccinations.
The vaccination site can not be wet for several days. There is no scientific justification for this recommendation. Probably, it came from human medicine about the ban on wetting the Mantoux reaction, which in fact can also be wetted 🙂
Side effects of vaccination
A slight lethargy, a short-term increase in temperature are normal and expected reactions associated with the stimulation of the immune response.
Vaccination is rare, but possible allergic reactions - from mild redness and itching at the injection site to the development of anaphylactic shock (shortness of breath, salivation, severe weakness, pallor and then cyanosis of the mucous membranes). In the latter case, emergency assistance is required.
Postinjection Cat Sarcoma. A very rare complication (1 case per 10,000 injections), but its name is especially frightening to the owners. It is based on a strong inflammatory reaction to subcutaneous or intramuscular administration of a substance, not just a vaccine. There is evidence that adjuvant vaccines more often than others provoke the development of sarcoma, but there are few good studies on this disease.
Autoimmune reactions. Like post-injection sarcoma, these reactions are delayed in time and therefore it is very difficult to establish their dependence on vaccination. However, there is evidence that in less than 1% of animals autoimmune diseases are possible.
- recent hyperimmune serum injection
- acute and some chronic diseases
- animal depletion
- conditions accompanied by significant immunodeficiency (including when taking certain medications)
There are vaccines on the market from different manufacturers and in different combinations of components. It’s not an easy task to choose the optimal scheme, taking into account age, the history of past vaccinations, lifestyle, and particularities of animal health, when the data of scientific and clinical studies on diseases and immunity are published. Therefore, I recommend vaccinating pets with veterinarians who have relevant information.
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What you need to know
The rules for vaccinating dogs must be strictly observed. Before the due date, it is impractical to do the procedure, since the puppy is protected from various kinds of infections with breast milk.
It is better to refrain from vaccinations during tooth growth. This period is accompanied by fever, painful conditions.
Newly born puppies must be removed from communication with other pets. In order to avoid unwanted contacts, it is better to go to a clinic where vaccination of dogs is provided in the veterinarian’s office. For lack of such an opportunity, you can make manipulations at home.
When vaccination should not be done:
- if there is a disease
- in case of infection with parasites,
- at a temperature.
When asked why an animal is sick, a specialist can answer directly. Self-treatment often leads to negative side effects. Only a professional is able to navigate, prescribe the necessary drugs.
What types of diseases are especially dangerous
There are many infections that can cause health damage. The following is a list of especially dangerous ailments:
- Parvovirus enteritis, a threat to individuals of any age.
- Leptospirosis, which affects people, animals.
- Care disease (plague), the acute form of which causes the death of an individual.
- Rabies - leads to death and is dangerous for the owner (a person also becomes infected after being bitten by an animal).
Dog vaccination, vaccination schedule
The sequence of injection:
- against parvovirus enteritis, plague, leptospirosis - from 8 to 10 weeks,
- against rabies - from 12 to 13 weeks,
- rabies revaccination - at 12 months.
The interval between manipulations is 1-2 weeks.
This procedure must be carried out annually. Between the first and second vaccinations, quarantine is required, the duration of which is 2 weeks.
The following vaccines are administered according to similar rules. The main thing is to avoid hypothermia, to exclude swimming. As individuals grow older, the rules simplify - you can walk. All other recommendations must be considered.
Primary immunization is difficult to tolerate. At this time, appetite may disappear, temperature may rise, and various disorders may begin. Therefore, it is so important in the first year to create the most favorable conditions - to buy high-quality feed, pour fresh water. If the animal feels uncomfortable - it is better to temporarily give him rest.
If the condition worsens within 3 days, it is recommended to seek help from a specialist.
Dog vaccination schedule
Vaccination of an adult dog is an important and mandatory procedure. All manipulations related to vaccinating four-legged friends are carried out according to the schedule.
Unfortunately, many owners neglect repeated vaccinations, which often leads to disease. Therefore, it is so important to keep a schedule, have a calendar where the next immunization numbers are entered.
Prevention against dangerous ailments is carried out according to the vaccination schedule for adult dogs. Most likely, the veterinarian will give injections for plague, parvovirus, parainfluenza, adenovirus.
Stages of carrying out:
To prepare a four-legged friend means to provide him with quality food, a regimen, and a favorable emotional climate.
The veterinary market is saturated with a large assortment of domestic, imported drugs of various costs. Experienced owners know that a quality product can be bought inexpensively. Whoever vaccinates an animal for the first time should remember the expiration date of the drug.
Be sure to do rabies prophylaxis. The vaccine of the domestic producer “Rabikan” has proven itself quite well. Government clinics do it for free.
You can find out how much this or that remedy costs on forums, in online stores. It is important to remember that a suspiciously cheap drug may indicate a fake.
The event is preceded by a general inspection, temperature measurement (the norm is from 37.5 to 39.0 degrees).
- We open the ampoule, and collect 0.2-1 ml of dexamethasone (bleed air from the syringe).
- Disinfect the vaccination site (livestock).
- Introduce dexamethasone intramuscularly, knead the injection site.
- We prepare the vaccine in the second syringe.
- Disinfect the place of the alleged injection again.
- We introduce the drug subcutaneously.
- We remove the labels from the bottles, paste them into the veterinary certificate (we mark the date of vaccination here).
- The number of the next vaccination is entered on the calendar.
Despite the simplicity of presentation, this procedure cannot be considered easy. The animal may behave inappropriately. This is especially true for breeds with choleric temperament. To avoid trouble it is better to seek help from a specialist. Another option is to invite an experienced assistant who has participated in such an event.
Education University: Moscow State Academy of Veterinary Medicine. Year of release: 2010. Specialty: Veterinary medicine, Veterinary medicine. Experience I have experience in a veterinary clinic for more than 7 years. Work experience of FSBI “All-Russian State Center for Quality and Standardization of Medicines for Animals and Feed”