In 1876, the French botanist Eduard Andre, discovered many different colors and shapes of flowers. It was this research expedition that brought fame to Anthurium. The brightest and most beautiful flower, Edward named in his honor. Anthurium Andre has been cultivated since the 19th century. It was with his participation that more than 80 new varieties developed artificially appeared. Currently, he is very fond of flower growers, and is grown as a pot plant, and is used to make bouquets.
This is a very beautiful plant, 30 to 50 cm high. A heart-shaped leaf up to 20 cm long. A brilliant, wrinkled flower up to 10 cm long, with a curved or straight “tail”. The colors and sizes of the flower are diverse. Large spectacular inflorescences when cut remain in water for up to 3 weeks.
Anturium Andre (Latin Anthúrium andraéanum) is a perennial herbaceous evergreen, a species of the genus Anthurium (Anthurium) of the Aroidae family, or Aronnikovye (Araceae). Quote from Wikipedia
The evergreen perennial culture of the Aroid family, whose habitat is South America. The inflorescences of this crop consist of multiple yellow flowers. As flowering ceases, spherical orange fruits appear on the plant.
Variety Andre can bloom all year round, and sometimes much less having in its arsenal many shades resembling a rainbow.
Lighting, temperature and watering
This plant is terribly afraid of direct sunlight, the best location is the east, northeast, northwest and west side of the dwelling.
Ideal when the light is scattered or partial shade.
In the autumn-winter period, lighting should be improved with fitolamps or fluorescent lamps.
Maintain the temperature in the summer at about 20-25 degrees, in winter the mark can reach up to 18. Thanks to the medium-low temperature, the plant forms buds for further flowering.
In summer, low temperatures can slow down and stop the growth of flower crops.
Watering is not an easy task, as it seems at first glance. Experts recommend pouring with boiled or filtered water. If using tap water, add a few drops of lemon juice or acetic acid to it. Water the entire growing season with settled water with a 22-degree temperature.
Remember that it is equally dangerous to overfill or allow drought in the soil, this negatively affects the culture.
For anthuriums, increased humidity is very important. This can be achieved by spraying the crop with warm water. Nearby it is recommended to install a vessel with water.
Soil, fertilizer, fertilizing and transplanting
The soil for planting Andre must be breathable, the soil is perfect for orchids. If you decide to make the soil yourself, then take part of vermiculite, river coarse sand, 2 parts of coniferous and shredded pine bark, leafy soil and peat, also add charcoal.
The flower pot should be small, and have additional holes on the sides, as well as a drainage 3-cm layer, this is a prerequisite.
They are well suited as top dressing - fertilizers for orchids, they must be applied every half month during the growing season.
Transplant Andre annually for five years, then as needed.
Reproduction of anthurium implies several ways: in the presence of aerial roots, it can be propagated from apical cuttings, by dividing the adult bush into young delenki, by seeds, lateral offspring.
Pests and diseases
The main pests of the culture are spider mites and scabies. Fighting them is ineffective, it helps to get rid of pests well - a warm shower.
A flower can hurt due to a breach of the growing conditions; the main diseases include stem rot, rust, powdery mildew, root rot and anthracnose. Do not overfill and keep the plant in a cool room.
Anthurium andrianum (Andre): home care
Anthurium Andre considered the most affordable for growing of all his relatives. However, one should not forget that this is a native of the tropical jungle, where high humidity throughout the year is the habitual habitat of the flower. The same conditions must be strictly observed when keeping the plant indoors.
In addition, it must be remembered that all parts of the exotic representative of the flora are poisonous. When caring for him, it is important to follow all safety precautions, use rubber gloves and wash your hands thoroughly. A green pet should be placed away from children and pets.
Site selection and temperature
Anthurium Andre prefers bright light, but it must be positioned so that direct sunlight does not fall on its leaves. For this, windows of any orientation, except for the south, are suitable. When placing a plant on a windowsill, it is highly advisable to take care of its shading in the form of a translucent curtain.
"Flower-tail" loves heat, but favors the usual summer temperature of our latitudes. from 22 to 25 ° C. In winter he feels rather well at a temperature of 16 to 18 ° C. In addition, the coolness for one and a half to two months stimulates the laying of buds and flowering.
Watering and humidity
In the warm season, the plant should be watered abundantly, waiting until the top layer of the substrate dries out - approximately twice in 7-8 days. With the onset of winter, watering is reduced to once a week. In this case, excess water in the pan must be drained.
Anthurium Andre is very demanding on water quality. Even soft, settled water is not good enough for him. It is recommended to boil it or acidify it with acetic or citric acid.
High humidity from 85 to 95% all year round - the most difficult wish of Anthurium. You have to use all possible methods for its implementation. The daily spraying of the plant in the mornings and evenings is excellent. You can also install it on a tray with wet filler, and place containers with water nearby. The cardinal method is a humidifier. The flower will not refuse to rub the leaves with a damp cloth or sponge.
Rinsing it with a strong jet from several sides allows you to additionally moisten the air roots and foliage, wash off pests and dust.
During active growth, the “wax flower” is fed with complex fertilizers for flowering crops once every 14-15 days.
Anthurium blooms from early spring to late autumn, especially abundantly in the summer. Interestingly, after flowering, the veil becomes green and becomes an ordinary leaf. From November to January, the plant is resting and gaining strength. As already mentioned above, a cool wintering is very important for setting flower buds.
This is the most numerous species of the Aroid family. The genus Anthurium includes a large variety of vines, evergreens, but most often epiphytes, which actually grow in the tropics. Epiphytes are aerial roots that descend from branches to the ground. There are lithophytes that grow on the rocks. Otherwise, it is also called flamingo. He was brought to our country from Central and South America. And what a variety of leaf shapes the presented plant has. These are dissected leaves, and in the shape of a heart, scapula, and also elementarily rounded. They can shine with a beautiful gloss or be matte. The plant also has the peculiarity of turning after the sun.
The key personality of Anthurium in its color abundance. Flowers come in white to green, including red and purple hues. Indoor plants still have a different ear. It also comes in many forms. In the shape of a mace, cone, spiral or ball. And the color is also different. Above the ear covers a catchy leaf of a flower. The flowers themselves are more rhomboid and square.
You will not believe it, but this flower is still amazing with its own smells. They can be either subtle or bright, including even smelly.
Anthurium blooms all year. The main thing is that the flower has good lighting. Fortunately, special UV lamps have been invented for this. Flowers stay within 1-2 months. When pollinated, this kind of flower has berries with seeds.
Those who grow anthurium at home most likely noted that this kind of flower has such a feature as aging. But there are methods to “rejuvenate” the plant. The phytodesigners of the rooms make excellent money on these colors, since the anthurium looks luxurious. Also, masters of composing bouquets use them. And while the flowers not only look rich, but also have every chance of standing for a long time in a vase.
Consider some of the varieties of Anthurium that are most popular.
Anthurium Andreanum has rather large leaves of a greenish color in the form of a heart. And the plant itself is also large. On the stems a large number of aerial roots. The surface of various colors: snow-white, pink, scarlet, yellow and green.
Anthurium Scherzerianum belongs to epiphytes. The stems are shortened. It grows no higher than 40 cm. The leaves, like those of Anthurium Andre, have a leathery structure, but are covered with dark dots on both sides. As a rule, its inflorescences are higher than the plant itself. The surface is scarlet red. Other colors are rare.
Andrianum Champion has large leathery leaves. He has a bract modified. The bract itself is of different shades. Inside it is an inflorescence. The ear is slightly curved. Depending on the variety, the color changes from white to black. It can bloom all year long. The flower itself is red. It blooms for about three months. It grows to a maximum of 65 cm.
Anthurium "Dakota" is very large, reaches a height of 80 cm. The size of the bedspread is up to 20 cm. The ear is yellow.
Anthurium Andre "Baby Boomer"
Anthurium Andre “Baby Boomer” - for it you will need light, slightly acidic soil filled with minerals. Grows to 90 cm. Blooms 3 months. At home it is better to keep it from the west or south side, sometimes you need to expose it in the sun, but not longer than 2 hours. Like the other varieties of Anthurium, it needs abundant watering and maintaining high humidity in the room.
When the Baby Boomer begins to grow actively, it should be regularly fed.
Anthurium "Sierra" - if most varieties of this family are high enough, then this variety is medium in size and will fit into any interior. The flowers have a passionate red color, the peduncle is quite large, yellow-green in color. Most often it is he who is chosen as a gift, not only to the woman, but also to the man. If you properly care for "Sierra", it will delight you with its flowering all year round.
Anthurium Crysytallinum - the leaves of this plant with a period of life vary from yellow-violet to green in color and do not grow more than 20 cm. Their velvety surface is presented in the form of a heart. On it you can see the silver streaks. This anthurium is called crystal not only because of such veins, but also because of the beautiful veil of purple or green color, reminiscent of this material as a whole.
Still often found among domestic species Anthurium "Magnificent." It is somewhat similar to the previous species. This is a beautiful plant with large leaves of velvet greenish color. There are snow-white veins on the leaves.
There is still a rather unusual view of Linden's anthurium. This species is found in the wild. Pink anthurium is rare, most often saturated green. This species grows in Colombia. It grows more often under trees or as an epiphyte on a tree. The key difference between Linden's anthurium is the shape of its leaves. They have the shape of a pointed heart, gleaming with gloss. The leaves are quite large. Sometimes their length reaches 30 cm. They also have veins of olive color. The bract of the plant is pink and rounded, pointed to the tip of the leaf. On a peduncle about 40 cm in size is an ear of creamy white color. When it blooms, it smells bright.
Like previous species, Linden's anthurium has been cultivated by people, but this view is more for the street than for the house.
Anthurium Hooker is very rarely seen at home, only if somewhere in private collections, since this plant is still wild. It is found in the Lesser Antilles, in the rainforests of Suriname, Trinidad and in some parts of Guiana. Leaves in the form of a socket. The diameter of one such outlet is quite large, within 150-200 cm and a height of just over 50 cm. The stem is literally not visible. The leaves are large, elliptical, narrowed. If you look closely, it is possible to see dark spots on the leaves. Petioles of the leaves are quite short, which also distinguishes this type of plant from the rest. It is quite difficult to grow Hooker anthurium at home so that his ears can be seen. But if you manage to achieve this, then you will see a large cob of dark purple in height within 30 cm with a bract, slightly shorter than the inflorescence itself.
Among the most popular varieties, one can also distinguish “Mix”, “Almera”, “Ziza”, “Sweetheart pink”.
Anthurium prefers moisture. As a result of this, clap about it in all ways known to you. You can spray the space around or buy a humidifier. But you should not spray the plant directly, as this will ruin its appearance. To remove dust from leaves is better with a moistened sponge.
- Anthurium should be transplanted once a year, adding fresh land. After 5 years, when the plant becomes an adult, you can transplant it once every 3 years.
- You can not transplant a plant with diseased roots. Such roots must be cleaned and treated with crushed coal.
- So that the roots do not begin to rot, be sure to ensure that there is a drainage layer in the pot.
- The lateral processes are either transplanted into a separate pot, or simply removed.
- The pot is worth choosing depending on your goals. If you intend to propagate anthurium, then you should take a wide pot. And in case you need to initiate flowering, then in accordance with this it is better to take a pot much less.
How to care?
Despite the fact that these plants adore water, it is very important not to overdo it with watering. Watering should be plentiful, but neat. Ensure that the topsoil is dry. If it’s cool in your home, you don’t need to take too much watering.
You can use the already prepared soil, which is sold in specialized stores. But you can also do it yourself. You will need a light earthen mixture, in which it is desirable to add sand and charcoal. This will allow the plant to breathe and prevent rot.
In any flower shop you can buy special mineral dressings specifically for this family. You need to feed more often - about two times a week. In winter and autumn, anthurium is not fed.
Sometimes with watering, you can do foliar top dressing.
You can divide a large plant or propagate it by shoots. Also, a small part of the plant is sometimes separated and rooted. And as an option, it can be propagated by seeds. If you need a plant to grow quickly and bloom in a short time, use the vegetative method. So you get an exact copy of the original. This condition is very important for those who wish to receive a copy of the hybrid.Since you need to transplant once every 2-3 years, during this time you can plant at least 2 independent plants, at most five, from the main bush. These measures help anthurium grow and bloom better.
Diseases and Pests
We can distinguish such problems.
- Leaves turn yellow - the cause of such a disease can be an elementary "old age", a large abundance of light, or, conversely, you need to put the plant in the sun for several hours in order to treat it.
- Drying out - frequent airing of the room and low temperatures can lead to it, perhaps you have not watered the plant for a long time.
- The appearance of spots - frostbite or burns. If growth slows along with this, then the cause may be pests. It is also likely that you went too far with fertilizers.
- If your plant has dry tips, then you should think about wetting the room, or the flower does not have enough oxygen.
- Flower dries - aging (in this case, the fetus usually appears). You can water the plant and try to moisten the air. Perhaps you put a flower in the sun and overexposed.
- If the leaves of the plant began to turn black, then this is a clear sign that you have gone too far with top dressing, which contains calcium.
- Flowers turn black - when you irrigate, you can not touch the inflorescences. That is what can cause blackening.
- Leaves curl - most likely, your flower has suffered from a sharp change in temperature or is standing in the shade, and possibly the opposite - the flower needs to be in the sun. You can also try to humidify the air in the room.
- Withering foliage - the roots of the plant must have begun to rot.
- Smallpox - Try raising the room temperature. Also, a deficiency of nutrition and damage to the roots could be the reason.
- Of enations - it is necessary that the temperature and humidity are constant.
- Stem rot - increased soil and air humidity.
- Aphid - well with these pests infusions of onions and garlic cope. But you can also buy special tools in the store: Fitoverm, Actellik, Karate, Intavir, Decis.
- Shields - here from the store funds you will be helped by Confidora, Bankola, Biotlin.
- Spider mite - “Aktellik”, “Flumayt”, “Oberon”, “Akarin”, “Omayt” will come to the rescue.
- Thrips - from such pests special Velcro is sold, which attract them like a magnet, and various drugs: Fitoverm, Karate, Lightning, Actellik, Intavir.
- Whiteflies - “Fufanon”, “Biotlin”, “Tanrek”, “Iskra”, “Bison” will help with them.
- Leaves become small, growth stops - feed your plant.
Summing up, we can say that Anthurium is a very moody plant and requires a lot of attention and care. Also, it is not cheap. So it is better to purchase it if you have enough time to care for the flower. Otherwise, you will spend a considerable amount, also upset that the plant died due to improper attitude to it.
Anthurium is suitable for true gardeners, a beginner is unlikely to cope with it.
In the next video, you will find the rules for the care and watering of the anthurium Andre "Dakota".
Location and lighting
Flower Anthurium Andre does not like direct sunlight. It is recommended to place it on window sills on the east, north-east, west and north-west sides of the house. The light should be scattered, and the place may be partial shade. In the period from October to February, when there is not enough natural light, you can illuminate plants with fluorescent lamps or phytolamps.
Favorable temperature for growing Anthurium Andre in the summer is from 20 to 25 degrees Celsius. Growth may slow down or stop if the temperature drops to 18 degrees. In winter, for 1.5-2 months, the anthurium is in a resting period and prefers to be kept in cool conditions with a temperature of 15-16 degrees. Such cool conditions contribute to the formation of buds and active flowering in the future.
Irrigation water for anthurium should be filtered or boiled, you can use tap water, but before watering it is recommended to add a small amount of lemon juice or a few drops of acetic acid to it. Soft, settled water with a temperature of 20-22 degrees abundantly watered crops throughout the growing season. The next moistening of the soil is carried out only after a slight drying of the upper layer, but not more than 1-2 cm. In winter, the volume and frequency of irrigation are reduced. The lack and excess of moisture in the soil is equally dangerous for the life of anthurium.
Soil Composition and Transplantation
The soil for the anthurium Andre, which is semi-epiphytic and has numerous aerial roots, should be light and have good aeration.
Ready mix for orchids is quite suitable. But still it is better to prepare the substrate yourself. To do this, you need to take one part of vermiculite and coarse sand and two parts of shredded pine bark, peat, coniferous and leafy land.
The mixture can still be improved with a small amount of coconut fiber and small pieces of charcoal. Moss-sphagnum is placed on top of the substrate.
Young anthuriums are transplanted every year, and adults - as the volume of the pot is filled with roots. The new capacity should be taken low and the size of the plant. In a too big flowerpot you can not wait for flowering. The bottom of the tank should be provided with large drainage holes and covered with a thick layer of drainage. Extra holes in the walls of the pot will not interfere.
When transplanting, you should very carefully handle the roots - they are very fragile. It is desirable that the base of the bush towered above the ground by 5-6 cm. Air roots are wrapped with sphagnum moss.
Transplant after purchase
You can only remove it from the pot and carefully, without stopping the soil, inspect the roots. If they are healthy, you can return the bush back to the container and quarantine it - separately from other flowers.
The plant usually gets used to new conditions in a few weeks. After it adapts, it is possible to transplant the “new settler” into a fresh substrate. In this case, it is desirable to wash the transportation soil from the roots.
If a new “green friend” is acquired in a deplorable state, waterlogged and with rotting roots, an immediate transplant is required. Old soil should be washed from the roots, and diseased roots removed.