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Cattle babesiosis is an acute, transmissible disease, accompanied by fever, anemia, yellowness of the mucous membranes, hemoglobinuria, impaired cardiovascular and digestive systems, and animal productivity.

The most susceptible to babesiosis are cows and young animals from a year and older. Young animals up to a year are sometimes ill in mild form. For babesiosis, seasonality is characteristic, the disease occurs mainly in the summer, sometimes in the fall.

Etiology. The causative agent of the disease is Babesia bovis. It is localized in red blood cells, sometimes the pathogen can be found in white blood cells and blood plasma in the form of oval, ring-shaped, amoeba-shaped and pear-shaped. Sometimes laboratory workers have to meet anaplasmoid forms in the form of round point inclusions, which are smaller, occur mainly at the beginning of the disease. In red blood cells, the parasite most often occupies a peripheral position. The pear-shaped forms are smaller than the radius of the red blood cell, are located at an obtuse angle and lie on the periphery of the red blood cell, as if saddling it. The size of the pear-shaped forms is less than the radius of the red blood cell and amounts to (1.5-2.4 x 0.75-1.12 microns. In one red blood cell there are 1-2, sometimes 3-4 pathogens of babesiosis. Red blood cell infection reaches 40-57% or more . Babesiosis is characterized by the ability to circulate in the body for a long time.

Babesia bovis is carried by the ticks Ixodes ricinus and Ixodes pesulcatus, both in the larval, nymph and adult stages. Ticks are most often found in swampy, damp places with lots of small shrubs.

In animals, the parasite lasts up to 1-3 years, while there are known cases of its disappearance from the blood a few months after the disease (L.P. Dyakonov, N.E. Kosminkov, 1999).

The severity of babesiosis in an animal depends on the pathogenicity of the pathogen, the body's resistance, the number of parasitic ticks and other factors. In the external environment, babesia quickly die as a result of drying.

Epizootological data. The disease is common in many countries of Europe. In Russia, the disease is often observed in cattle in Karelia, regions of the northwestern zone, central Russia, less often in the North Caucasus and Transcaucasia. All breeds of cattle are susceptible to disease. Adult animals are most susceptible to babesiosis, calves are relatively ill, while babesiosis is difficult in young animals of 1-2 years of age. The disease in animals is recorded in the pasture period, with winter-stall content babesiosis is very rare as a result of the introduction of ticks into the room with hay or in the case of exacerbation of parasitism.

Pathogenesis. The pathological process in the body of sick animals develops as the pathogens that multiply in the blood multiply and the products of their vital activity accumulate in the blood. The resulting toxins act on the neuro-reflex mechanism, disrupting thermoregulation, and subsequently metabolism. During the reproduction of the parasite in the body of an invasive animal, a massive breakdown of red blood cells occurs, as a result of which their number in the blood decreases sharply, and an anemic symptoms develop in a sick animal. At the same time, both parasites themselves and their toxins play a role in the destruction of red blood cells. As a result of the massive breakdown of red blood cells in the blood, a large amount of hemoglobin is formed, part of which is excreted from the body of the animal through the kidneys, giving the urine a red color (hemoglobinuria). Subsequently, with increased intoxication of the body, there is an increase in the porosity of blood vessels, congestion develops, as a result of which circulatory disturbance, gas and protein metabolism develop.

Violation of redox processes in a sick animal causes the development of anoxemia. In the blood, the amount of residual nitrogen and protein breakdown products increases, which leads to intoxication of the animal. A developing violation of the central nervous system causes a sick animal with general depression or symptoms of temporary arousal. A sick animal develops muscle tremors, atony of the pancreas and intestines, sometimes paresis of limbs.

Clinical picture. The incubation period when an animal is infected with invasive ticks lasts 8-14 days. The disease is acute and lasts 4-8 days in the animal. The disease begins with a sharp increase in body temperature to 41-42 ° C and stays firmly at this level (constant fever). Sick animals are depressed, lose their appetite, lag behind other animals when grazing, lie more. During a clinical examination of such an animal by a veterinary specialist, the pallor and yellowness of the visible mucous membranes are noted, and sometimes hemorrhages are found on the mucous membranes. Breathing quickened to 70-80 breaths per minute. The pulse is frequent, 110 and more beats per minute, the heart beat is strengthened. A sick cow sharply reduces milk yield - in the first days by 40%, and in the following days to 80% or more. Milk from such an animal is yellow, bitter in taste, sometimes milk has a reddish color, streaks of blood are found. Veterinary specialists register hemoglobinuria (urine red or dark red) in a sick cow on the 2-3rd day after the temperature rises. When urine is sedimented, a precipitate does not form, red blood cells are absent in the urine. On the 5-6th day of the disease, a sharp drop in body temperature to 35-36 ° C occurs, the animal develops muscle tremors and cramps.

From the first days of the disease in the animal, we register a violation of the function of the gastrointestinal tract. At the beginning of the disease, the animal has diarrhea, which is replaced by persistent atony of the pancreas. The sick animal quickly loses weight, lies more, rises with difficulty. The blood of a sick animal becomes watery, the number of red blood cells in 1 ml is reduced by 50-60%, hemoglobin - up to 30% and below. Among erythrocytes, anisocytes, poikilocytes, polychromatophiles, normoblasts, and often basophilic granularity are observed. When studying leukocytes in a leukogram, we register a left shift to myelocytes and young neutrophils.

Pathological changes. The corpses of dead animals are exhausted. The mucous membranes of the eyes, mouth and nose are anemic and icteric. The subcutaneous tissue is swollen, with a yellow tinge. Skeletal muscles are flabby, have the appearance of boiled meat. The serous membranes of the abdominal cavity are icteric, in places with hemorrhages. Lymph nodes are juicy, reddish. The spleen is increased in volume by 1.5-2 times, the edges are dull, the surface is smooth, the capsule is tense, the pulp has a dark cherry color in the section, it is easily removed with a dull part of the knife. In individual fallen animals, intravital rupture of the spleen is possible. The liver is enlarged, flabby, clay to the touch, juicy in the section. The gall bladder is enlarged and overflowed with thick greenish bile, granular to the touch. The kidneys are enlarged, the capsule from the kidneys is easily removed, there are massive hemorrhages under the capsule, the parenchyma is flabby, the border between the cortical and brain layers has been erased. The bladder is filled with red urine; there may be hemorrhages on the mucous membrane. The book is enlarged, solid to the touch, full of food. The mucous membrane of the abomasum and intestines is covered with mucus, sometimes with hemorrhages. The chest cavity contains up to 4 liters of reddish fluid. The heart is hypertrophied, the heart muscle is flabby, often looks like boiled meat. On the pericardium and endocardium, point hemorrhages. Light swollen. The vessels of the brain are full of blood.

Diagnosis veterinarians put babesiosis on the basis of epizootological data, seasonality of the disease, clinical signs of the disease, the results of pathological dissection of the fallen animal, a mandatory examination of blood smears. For a smear, a drop of blood is taken from the animal’s ear and stained according to Romanovsky-Giemsa.

Differential diagnosis. Babesiosis must be differentiated from anthrax, leptospirosis, anaplasmosis, pyroplasmosis, francaiellosis and poisoning with mineral poisons.

Immunity. In animals that have been affected by babesiosis, non-sterile immunity (premium) is created, the tension and duration of which depends on the virulence of the pathogen that caused the disease, the severity of the disease and the condition of the animal's body. With a mild course of babesiosis, the animal has a shorter and less intense immunity (up to a year). There is immunity against babesiosis in the body of the animal while in the body of the sick animal there are a small amount of blood parasite.

Vaccination of cattle against B. bovis is carried out in many countries of the world. It uses blood from animal donors who have recently recovered from babesiosis. Each dose of the vaccine contains about 10 million. parasites. The vaccine is used for cattle after one year of age in areas unsuccessful for babesiosis.

Treatment. Sick animals are left in the farmyard, giving them complete peace. Before providing medical care, animals must not be distilled for significant distances.

For chemotherapy, sick animals are prescribed the following drugs:

    • hemosporidine - subcutaneously or intramuscularly at a dose of 0,0005g / kg of animal weight in the form of a 1-2% aqueous solution,
    • azidine (berenyl) - at a dose of 0.0035 g / kg weight in the form of a 7% solution intramuscularly or subcutaneously,
    • flavacridine hydrochloride (tripoflavin) - at a dose of 0.003-0.004 g / kg of animal weight in the form of a 1% solution,
    • diamidine (imidocarb, imidozolin) - at a dose of 0.002 g / kg weight in a 1-7% solution intramuscularly or subcutaneously.

In addition, in the treatment of babesiosis in animals, albargin, tiorgen, acaprine, Naganin, etc. are used. Before using specific medicines, animals are given heart preparations (caffeine, camphor). Symptomatic treatment of sick animals. Meat hay, finely ground feed, fresh or skim milk are introduced to the sick animal in the diet. In case of atony of the pancreas, glauber salt (250-300g), flaxseed broth, vegetable oil, tincture of hellebore 10ml in 500ml of water inside, 40 ° alcohol (vodka) 300-500ml are set. If a sick animal has persistent atony of the pancreas, a good therapeutic effect can be obtained from intravenous administration of 200-300 ml of a 10% hypertonic solution of sodium chloride. Apply drugs that stimulate hematopoiesis in a sick animal (vitamin B12, antianemin, campalon and others).

Prevention and control measures. In order to prevent babesiosis, owners of private household plots, peasant farms and agricultural enterprises should graze on cultivated pastures if possible. In regions where there is hardened pasture, grazing animals must be periodically treated with acaricides. For prophylactic purposes, all animals should undergo chemoprophylaxis once every 12 days by administering azidine or hemosporidin. It is better to use these drugs in combination with naganin.

What is babesiosis?

Babesiosis is a rare infectious disease caused by unicellular microorganisms (protozoa) belonging to the babesia family (lat. Babesiosis). It is believed that the simplest babesiellosis is usually carried and transmitted by ticks.

Babesiosis occurs mainly in animals, but in rare cases, babesiosis infection can occur in humans. It is known that certain types of parasites (e.g. Babesia microti) and deer ticks cause babesiosis infection in humans.

A person’s babesiosis can cause fever, chills, headache, nausea, vomiting and / or muscle pain (myalgia). In healthy people, the symptoms may be mild, in addition, in some infected people, symptoms may be absent (asymptomatic course of the disease). However, a severe form of babesiosis, which can be life threatening if left untreated, can occur in people who have had their spleen removed., or who have a compromised immune system.

Signs and Symptoms

Most people with babesiosis do not experience any symptoms or experience only mild signs of the disease. However, in some cases, babesiosis can cause serious complications. These severe cases usually occur only in people over 50 years old, in people with a compromised immune system (immunocompromised), or in people whose spleen has been removed.

Symptoms associated with babesiosis usually develop around 1-4 weeks (time of incubation period) after exposure to the parasite. Symptoms vary greatly from case to case.

Initial symptoms may include:

  • fever:
  • general feeling of poor health (malaise):
  • fatigue:
  • loss of appetite.

Additional early symptoms include joint pain (arthralgia), muscle pain (myalgia), chills, sweating, and headaches.

Affected individuals may also have additional symptoms, including:

In some cases, the liver (hepatomegaly) and / or spleen (hepatosplenomegaly) may increase. Immunocompromised people with severe babesiosis may have impaired renal function and discoloration of the skin, mucous membranes, and eye proteins (a condition commonly called jaundice).

A laboratory study of blood samples of affected people can reveal an abnormally low level of red blood cells (hemolytic anemia) due to their destruction by a parasite. Additional laboratory data may include abnormally low platelet counts (thrombocytopenia) and white blood cells (leukopenia).

In 20-25 percent of cases of babesiosis in people suffering from this disease, Lyme disease (tick-borne borreliosis) is also observed. People who have both infections at the same time usually experience a more pronounced manifestation of symptoms and a longer duration of these symptoms. People with babesiosis may also have another infectious disease known as ehrlichiosis. In rare cases, all three diseases can affect a person at the same time.

In rare cases, this infection can cause a respiratory illness known as acute adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS).

Babesiosis is caused by unicellular microorganisms (protozoa) from the genus Babesia. These microorganisms are parasites that penetrate red blood cells (blood cells).

There are more than 100 types of babesias. In most cases, the two types of babesias that cause disease in humans are Babesia microti and Babesia divergens. The species involved vary by geographic location.

Protozoa Babesia, such as B. microti, are transmitted to humans through the bite of infected ticks. Ticks are the main "carriers".

Carrier Is a term for any infected organism that transfers a specific pathogen (for example, a bacterium or virus) to another organism, which then becomes ill.

A deer tick (black-footed tick) is the most common carrier of babesiosis.

In extremely rare cases, babesiosis can be transmitted after a blood transfusion with blood contaminated with a microorganism.

Affected Populations

Babesiosis is a rare infectious disease that affects men and women in equal amounts.It can appear in people of any age, although it is more common in people over 50 years old, in people with a weakened immune system and in people who have undergone splenectomy (surgery to remove the spleen).

In the United States most cases are limited to the northeast coast in New York, Massachusetts, and Connecticut. The infected tick is present in large quantities in these areas. In Russia - mainly in the north-west and south of the European part and in the forest-steppe regions of southern Siberia.

Diagnostics

The diagnosis of babesiosis is made on the basis of a thorough clinical assessment, a detailed patient history (for example, a recent tick bite), characteristic results and special tests, such as blood smear tests, which check the presence of parasites in red blood cells.

The diagnosis can also be confirmed by antibody testing (indirect immunofluorescence assay).

Standard treatment methods

In most healthy people (with a spleen, strong immune system), babesiosis usually goes away spontaneously without causing serious symptoms or is generally asymptomatic. People with a weakened immune system may need treatment with drugs, as clindamycin, quinine and / or other antiparasitic drugs or antibiotics. Clindamycin and quinine are the drugs most commonly used to treat people with severe symptoms of babesiosis.

Two treatment other drugs, atovaquone and azithromycin, was used in cases where clindamycin and quinine are ineffective. People who have had their spleen removed and / or have severe cases of babesiosis may need a blood transfusion.

Babesiosis has a severity spectrum that can be divided into 3 separate parts as follows:

  1. Asymptomatic infection.
  2. Mild to moderate virus-like syndrome.
  3. A serious illness with a lightning course, leading to death or a constant recurrent course.

Babesiosis in otherwise healthy hosts causes an acute infectious disease resembling malaria. Most cases of babesiosis are subclinical or mildly symptomatic. Babesiosis can last more than 2 months after treatment, asymptomatic infections can persist for months or years.

Patients with positive smear results or positive polymerase chain reaction (PCR) results should be re-treated more than 3 months after the initial treatment, regardless of the presence or absence of seizures.

In healthy people with intact spleens, babesiosis rarely ends in death, however, in patients suffering from asplenia (absence of the spleen), babesiosis is usually quite severe and is associated with significant mortality. Asplein patients have a more rapid and prolonged clinical course, which can lead to death.

Prevention

Persons who will be exposed to places with a large number of ticks (for example, fields, forest or marsh areas, etc.) should consider taking certain measures to prevent infection.

Security measures should include wearing long-sleeved shirts, long trousers and hats, wearing light-colored clothing to make ticks more visible, using appropriate tick-borne remedies, carefully checking clothing and skin (especially the scalp and back of the neck) after being in places where it is suspected dwell ticks.

Medical expert articles

Among protozoal zoonotic diseases, babesiosis in humans is not as widely known as, for example, malaria or leishmaniasis.

Although parasitology encountered its causative agent in animals at the end of the 19th century. And infectious disease doctors were convinced of the possibility of infecting people in the middle of the last century. And in the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10), this acute vector-borne disease is assigned a code - B60.0.

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Epidemiology

According to statistics cited by the International Society for Infectious Diseases, in Europe facts of the manifestation of babesiosis in humans are rarely recorded: since 1957, when the first case was accidentally detected (in the territory of then Yugoslavia), no more than four dozen cases were officially registered, mainly in Ireland, Great Britain and France. It is noteworthy that in the history of all patients had a splenectomy.

Also, isolated cases with a pronounced clinical picture were recorded in Mexico, Colombia, South Africa, Egypt, Korea, China and Japan. Most cases were older than 45-50 years.

In almost 20-25% of patients, babesiosis is combined with Lyme disease.

The global incidence of human babesiosis has increased over time. For example, in China there is no endemic human babesiosis, but over the past three decades, patients with this disease appear more often.

According to official Center for Global Health (CDC) data, in the United States between 2011 and 2014, there were 5542 cases of babesiosis in humans.

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Causes of babesiosis

The only cause of babesiosis in humans is invasion, that is, the ingestion of such a variety of protozoa as Babesia divergens and Babesia microti or babesias belonging to the type Apicomplexa (or Sporozoea), the genus Plasmodium, the order Piroplasmidae.

The first subspecies is common on the European continent and in Asia, the second in the Western Hemisphere, and both subspecies have been found in Eastern and Northern Australia. Read more about this microscopic parasite (its owners, biological cycle and reproduction) in a separate publication - Babesia.

The pathogens of babesiosis are transmitted by protist blood-sucking arthropods, vertebrate parasites - ixodid ticks: Ixodes ricinus (dog tick), Ixodes persulcatus (taiga tick), black tick (Ixode scapulari) and Ixodes pacific preferring the Pacific coast.

It is clear that the ways of infection with babesiosis are transmissible - through tick bites in people, when, together with the salivary fluid secreted by the bite, the babesia sporozoites enter the human blood.

As a rule, the incubation period for the development of parasitemia after a tick bite is from one to four weeks, but sometimes it can be much longer.

In addition, other possible routes of infection include blood transfusion and organ transplantation. Since 2003, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention have documented over 40 cases of babesiosis after transfusion of canned blood plasma and two cases of infection after allotransplantation.

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Risk factors

Among the main risk factors for infection with babesiosis, infectious disease specialists include living or visiting endemic regions and weakened human immunity. Moreover, this is not only HIV, but also chronic diseases of any internal organs that inhibit the immune system and oncology, as well as immunosuppressive therapy.

It is almost impossible to resist this vector-borne disease if a person has undergone a splenectomy, that is, his spleen has been removed (the function of which is the destruction of old and dead red blood cells).

As with other infections, children and the elderly are at increased risk of developing severe forms of babesiosis.

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Explaining the pathogenesis of this disease, experts note the ability of babesia to penetrate not only into human blood, but into the cytoplasm of red blood cells. The number of affected blood cells is usually 3-10% of the total mass of red blood cells, but may vary from less than 1% to 85%.

Then, inside the red blood cells, Babesia sporozoites transform into trophozoites, and then into merozoites. The increase in their number simply breaks red blood cells, and the reproductive cells of the parasite are carried by the bloodstream and attack new red blood cells.

Reproduction and the pathological effect of babesias that got into the bloodstream causes an inflammatory reaction (due to the activation of pro-inflammatory cytokines) and hemolysis (massive death of red blood cells), which causes a clinic of babesiosis in humans.

Due to a sharp decrease in the level of red blood cells, hemolytic anemia is observed (leading to oxygen starvation of all tissues), the volume of a by-product of bilirubin red blood cell lysis (which is manifested by jaundice) increases in the blood, and substances toxic to the body that overload the spleen and liver (c an increase in their size and a decrease in functions). In addition, fragments of destroyed red blood cells can accumulate in the capillaries and cause microvascular stagnation.

With increased hemolysis, the kidneys cease to cope with blood filtration, in which is located the hemoglobin that emerged from the damaged red blood cells. This iron-containing and oxygen-transporting protein “clogs” the renal tubules, disrupting the production of urine and its excretion.

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Symptoms of babesiosis

The severity of the disease and its manifestation depend on the state of the human immune system, and, according to some reports, half of children and a quarter of previously healthy adults have no symptoms of babesiosis.

The first signs of this infection are non-specific and most often manifest in the form of flu-like symptoms: general weakness and malaise, fever (constant or intermittent, with temperatures up to + 40.5 ° C) - with chills and increased sweating, headache, muscle pain and aches in joints, loss of appetite. A similar clinical picture can be observed from several days to several months.

Less commonly, symptoms may include nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, yellowing of the skin and darkening of the urine (if hemolytic anemia develops), the appearance of petechiae and ecchymoses, photophobia with conjunctival redness and retinal hemorrhage, pain and redness in the throat, dry nose, coughing up, or dry cough. hyperesthesia, difficulty breathing, a state of depression.

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Complications and consequences

Severe cases can have multiple consequences and complications:

  • congestive heart and respiratory failure, pulmonary edema and acute respiratory distress syndrome,
  • acute renal, renal-hepatic or multiple organ failure,
  • severe hemolytic anemia,
  • thrombocytopenia or coagulopathy.

Spontaneous rupture of the spleen, myocardial infarction, and a state of shock with lethal consequences may develop.

Patients with a removed spleen are in worse condition, because the blood does not clear the infected red blood cells. This leads to a higher degree of parasitemia, which ultimately causes hypoxemia and the subsequent threat of acute cardiopulmonary failure.

In addition, in such patients, hemophagocytic syndrome, failure of the kidneys and other organs can occur, which leads to a coma.

With prolonged babesiosis with organic brain damage, complications are neurological and mental in nature.

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Pathogen

The causative agents of babesiosis in humans can be three types of babesia (type - protozoa, class - sporozoans): Babesia divergens and Babesia rodhaini - in Europe, Babesia micron - in America. In animals, the causative agent of the disease can also be B. bovis and B. bigemina.

Babesia divergens, Babesia rodhaini, Babesia micron

Babesia - intracellular parasites affecting red blood cells of cattle, horses, sheep, pigs, dogs, humans.

Babesia have a different shape and size, more often ring-shaped, located along the walls of the red blood cell.

Pairs of babesias form pear-shaped. Red blood cell contamination ranges from a fraction of a percent (asymptomatic forms of the disease) to tens of percent (acute forms).

A natural reservoir for babesias can be argali, mouflon, fallow deer and a number of other mammals.

The vectors of the infection are argas mites and the pasture mite Ixodes ricinus. Once in the intestines of the tick of babesia, they begin to actively multiply by asynchronous and binary division.

Argas tick and Ixodes ricinus pasture tick

As a result of division, mononuclear individuals are formed, which grow and develop into club-shaped stages. Then they penetrate the intestinal epithelial cells and again begin to divide.

Over time, this process decays, and the club-shaped stages penetrate the hemolymph. Further, they are carried by the bloodstream throughout the body of the tick, as well as to the salivary glands. In their bodies, intracellular parasites persist for life and can be transmitted to offspring.

The largest number of cases of infection is registered in Scandinavia, Germany, France, Poland, the USA (east coast). In Russia, the maximum risk of infection is observed in the north-west of the country and in the southern regions of the European part.

Ways of infection and the process of human infection

The most common infections occur through the bite of infected ticks. The transmission of babesiosis is also possible by blood transfusion (transplantation of blood) from infected individuals. Cases of infection of children in utero are also described.

After a tick bite, through its saliva, the pathogen enters the blood capillaries and multiplies in red blood cells. Clinical manifestations of babesiosis occur when the number of affected red blood cells reaches 3-5%.

Ticks mainly bite in hard to reach places.

Given the place of “living” of parasites, the products of their vital activity enter directly into the bloodstream, which explains the general toxic damage to the body.

As a result of the destruction of red blood cells in humans, anemia occurs, which is accompanied by impaired microcirculation and severe tissue hypoxia. The cell walls of red blood cells settle in the renal capillaries, which leads to acute renal failure and the development of hematuria.

The risk group for the development of this infectious disease includes agricultural workers, fur farms and dog kennels, as well as shepherds and tourists. To date, only about 100 cases of the occurrence of babesiosis in humans have been described in the world literature, most of them have been fatal.

Acute forms of the disease developed in people with serious disorders of the immune system, including after splenectomy (surgery to remove the spleen) and in HIV-infected people.

In people with a fully functioning immune system, the disease is asymptomatic, parasitemia reaches a maximum of 2%.

So, the risk of getting babesiosis is higher:

  • With reduced immunity,
  • In people with a removed spleen,
  • In the presence of any autoimmune disease,
  • In people with HIV / AIDS
  • In older people
  • In patients with chronic diseases and foci of infection,
  • In people who have recently suffered a serious illness.

In these cases, babesiosis is extremely severe and most often ends in death.

Symptoms and manifestation

Helminthiasis can lead to numerous health problems that shorten life by 15-25 years. Many parasites are extremely difficult to detect. They can be anywhere - in the blood, intestines, lungs, heart, brain. Symptoms of helminthic invasion can be confused with acute respiratory viral infections, gastrointestinal diseases and others. The main mistake in such cases is delaying! If you have suspicion of the presence of parasites, then you need to contact a specialist. If we talk about medicines and self-treatment, then the most common helminths (roundworm, pinworms, tapeworms) are suitable for this antiparasitic complex.

The duration of the incubation period during infection with Babesia through ticks is 8-15 days, through the blood - 5-12 days.

Babesiosis can occur in mild and severe forms. The second type of manifestation of the disease occurs in people with weak immunity. There are cases of death.

With a mild form of the disease appears:

  • Heat up to 39 degrees
  • Headache and muscle pain
  • Chills,
  • Drowsiness,
  • Body aches,
  • Fast fatiguability,
  • Excessive sweating,
  • Nausea and vomiting,
  • Suppressed emotional state,
  • Sore throat and stomach
  • Fear of the light
  • Cough.

Such symptoms are characteristic of influenza, so often people are unaware of infection with parasites. Babesiosis can be suspected if the condition does not improve after taking antipyretic drugs and other drugs against influenza and SARS.

Symptomatically, babesiosis is very similar to a common cold.

The main symptom of a serious illness is:

  • Raising the temperature to the 40–41st degree,
  • Headache,
  • Drowsiness,
  • Decreased appetite
  • Muscle pain,
  • Jaundice,
  • Violation of the liver and spleen,
  • Splenomegaly,
  • Blockage of the tubules of the kidneys and subsequent renal failure.

After this comes the 2nd stage of the disease, which is accompanied by sepsis - blood poisoning and the spread of viruses throughout the body. Sepsis causes pathological abnormalities in the work of the heart, lungs, and brain.

The clinical picture in children and adult patients is no different.

How to diagnose a disease

Clinical diagnosis is difficult. Long-term fever in combination with anemia, hepatomegaly in the absence of the effect of treatment with the use of antibacterial agents is the basis for laboratory studies on babesiosis.

Especially important is the recording of epidemiological data (tick bites, stay in an endemic area) and the identification of violations of the immune status in a patient.

Diagnosis of the disease is carried out by the following methods:

  • A blood smear according to Romanovsky-Giemsa. More often babesiosis is diagnosed using this method and its microscopy. When examining blood under a microscope, the nucleus of babesia (colored red) and its cytoplasm (has a blue tint) are visible. In cases of the initial stage of the disease or its chronic form, the method is ineffective.
  • Serological tests to observe the dynamics of the accumulation of antibodies. In the case of babesiosis, antibodies are detected after 3-8 weeks from the onset of the disease.
  • PCR Polymer chain reaction is a molecular diagnostic method that allows you to determine the presence of various infections and microorganisms by their DNA. PCR determines babesiosis at any stage of development and even the chronic form of babesiosis. The only drawback of the method is its high cost.

Romanovsky-Giemsa stain

Laboratory diagnosis of babesiosis is carried out with the exception of malaria, sepsis, HIV infection and various blood diseases. The study must take into account the degree of infection of the population in the region.

As soon as the symptoms of the disease appear, experts recommend a serological diagnosis. She most accurately identify an infectious disease.

Treatment methods

Given that human babesiosis is a disease that has not been studied enough, treatment is carried out individually in each clinical case.

In mild cases, the signs of the disease disappear on their own, and drug therapy may not be required. Treatment with conventional antimalarial drugs, as a rule, does not lead to the desired result.

Successful therapy involves the use of integrated measures:

  • The course of Quinine and Clindamycin. This technique is recognized as the most effective, while there are no side effects, there is no noise in the ears, headaches and disturbances in the digestive system,
  • The course of Pentamidine, Diisocyanate, Cotrimoxazole - a positive trend is observed after three days,
  • In parallel, a course of Atovacone and Azithromycin is prescribed,
  • To normalize body temperature, eliminate hypoxia and signs of intoxication, symptomatic treatment is performed, with pronounced symptoms of anemia, iron preparations are prescribed,
  • With renal failure, the patient undergo hemodialysis,
  • If the hemoglobin level drops to 70 g / l, a blood transfusion or red blood cell transfusion procedure is prescribed.

Prevention methods

Prevention of babesiosis is not specific. So, in order to protect yourself from infection with babesias, it is recommended:

  • To carry out deratization measures (extermination of ticks, rodent control near human dwellings),
  • Apply acaricides,
  • Timely seek medical help with a tick bite and, especially, with the appearance of complaints. Carrying out drug preventive measures after a bite.
  • Take anti-mite drugs.

Particular attention to drug prevention should be given to people who graze farm animals or come into contact with stray animals.

Protection against babesiellosis consists in the destruction of rodents and ticks on pastures, as well as in the specific treatment of animals with drugs that destroy ticks, that is, acaricides.

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Hello, readers of the site about parasites Noparasites.ru. My name is Alexander Lignum. I am the author of this site. I am 23 years old, I am a 5th year student of the Kemerovo State Medical Institute. Specialization "Parasitologist". More about the author >>

The best stories of our readers

Topic: Parasites are to blame for all the troubles!

From whom: Lyudmila S. ([email protected])

To: Administration Noparasites.ru

Not so long ago, my health condition worsened. She began to feel constant fatigue, headaches, laziness and some kind of endless apathy appeared. Gastrointestinal problems also appeared: bloating, diarrhea, pain and bad breath.

I thought that this was due to hard work and hoped that everything would pass by itself. But every day I was getting worse. Doctors also could not really say anything. It seems like everything is normal, but I somehow feel that my body is not healthy.

I decided to contact a private clinic. Then I was advised, along with general analyzes, to pass an analysis for parasites. So, in one of the tests, I found parasites. According to doctors, it was worms that 90% of people have and almost everyone is infected, to a greater or lesser extent.

I was prescribed a course of antiparasitic drugs. But it did not give me results. A week later, a friend sent me a link to an article where some parasitologist shared real advice on combating parasites. This article literally saved my life. I followed all the tips that were there and in a couple of days I felt much better!

Digestion improved, headaches disappeared, and that vital energy that I so lacked appeared. For reliability, I once again passed the tests and found no parasites!

Who wants to cleanse their body of parasites, and it doesn’t matter what types of these creatures live in you - read this article, I’m sure 100% will help you! Go to the article >>>

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